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Breaking the glass ceiling: the STEM world and the gender gap

Introduction: STEM disciplines and the women's issue

What is STEM?

STEM is an acronym that stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. These disciplines are at the heart of technological and scientific innovation and are crucial areas for economic and social progress. However, despite their importance, women are significantly underrepresented in these fields.

Gender inequality in STEM education

Gender disparity in STEM education is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. According to a 2022 UNESCO report, less than 30 percent of researchers worldwide are women, and there are countries where girls represent only 3 percent of students enrolled in engineering and computer technology programs. These numbers are a reflection of how cultural biases and stereotypes influence career choice in young women. In addition, the lack of female role models in STEM fields can create a vicious cycle where girls have fewer examples of success to emulate, leading to lower female representation in these fields.

Stereotypes and prejudices about women in STEM disciplines

Prejudices and stereotypes about women in STEM disciplines represent one of the biggest barriers to their participation. Even today, teachers and parents often underestimate girls' abilities in science and math subjects, negatively affecting their self-perception and aspirations. These stereotypes can lead to an educational environment in which girls do not feel supported or encouraged to pursue interests in these areas, limiting their potential and diversity in the STEM field.

The world of work: barriers and inequalities

In the world of work, women in STEM careers face additional challenges. Women in technology and science fields-although this disparity seems to affect other work fields as well-are paid less than their male counterparts for the same work. In addition, women are less represented in leadership and decision-making positions: this gap is attributed not only to gender discrimination, but also to factors such as lack of work flexibility, which can be particularly problematic for women balancing career and family responsibilities.

Overcoming discrimination

Overcoming these discriminations is critical not only to promoting gender equality, but also to maximizing innovation and creativity in the STEM fields. The diverse perspectives and skills that women can bring to these fields are essential to the development of inclusive and innovative solutions to complex challenges. In addition, promoting women's participation in STEM can have a significant impact on the global economy. Increasing women's participation in these areas could add millions of new skilled workers to the global economy and give a major boost to a field that is not benefiting fully from the significant contribution that could be made by women because of bias and discrimination that is now in the public eye.

More in-depth strategies can be adopted to reduce the gender gap in STEM fields:

Early education and awareness: Implement initiatives in school curricula that actively encourage girls to participate in STEM subjects, such as workshops, science clubs, and hands-on projects. Training teachers to recognize and counter gender stereotypes, creating a positive and encouraging learning environment for female students is also critical.

Improving the academic and work climate: Actively address gender discrimination and stereotypes in workplaces and academic institutions. This may include training on gender disparities, promoting anti-harassment policies, and incorporating more equitable hiring and evaluation practices.

Mentorship and networking: Develop mentorship programs where women who have already achieved success in STEM fields can offer guidance, support, and professional advice. These programs can be supported by meetings, conferences, and professional social networks dedicated to women in STEM.

Equal pay and promotion policies: Implement regular salary audits to ensure equal pay and career opportunities. Institutions and companies should establish transparent and objective criteria for promotions and salary increases to ensure that women are evaluated fairly.

Flexibility and support for work-family balance: Offer flexible work options, such as flexible hours, remote work, and extended parental leave. These policies can help reduce the dropout rate of women from the STEM field, allowing them to better balance work and family responsibilities.


Overcoming the gender gap in STEM disciplines is a key goal, not only for gender equality, but also for the advancement of science and technology. The stories of women who have achieved success in these fields show that it is possible to overcome barriers.

And useful for everyone. Just think of Gwynne Shotwell, president and COO of SpaceX. Her leadership has played a key role in the company's development and success, especially in the field of spaceflight and commercial space transportation. Shotwell has a background in mechanical and thermal engineering and is considered one of the most influential figures in the modern aerospace industry. Her work has helped define new frontiers in commercial space exploration and transportation, making her one of the most relevant women in STEM today.

But despite these examples, which are growing in number, a collective effort to create more inclusive educational and work environments is essential. Commitment that must affect everyone, but especially men, who today hold those positions of power gained by merit but also, as we have seen in this article, by virtue of an unfair bias that affects women. Through education, awareness, equitable policies and support for women in STEM, we can not only close the gender gap, but also enrich the scientific and technological world with different perspectives and innovations.

Foto Credits: MIT Technology Review - Sawaka Kawashima Romaine

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